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i4o        HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION

concerned with the personal interests of their members. This is
quite clearly brought out by the later statutes pf the German
group, which is believed to have been the earliest society of the
kind. " In these statutes, the object of the gild is declared to be
the cultivation of * fraternal charity, mutual association and
amity, the consolation of the sick and support of the needy,
the conduct of funerals and the extirpation of rancours and
quarrels, the attendance and escort of our Doctorandi to and
from the place of examination, and the spiritual advantage of
members/ "*

Even at this stage, when the societies of masters and students
were still feeble and undeveloped, the scholars in cities like Paris
and Bologna occupied a favoured position. In Paris they were
recognized as a section of the clergy and allowed such privileges
as the right of trial by the ecclesiastical courts. In the Italian
cities they formed a class by themselves on whom the cities for
their own sakes were willing to confer special advantages. Over
and above that, they enjoyed the favour of the superior secular
powers almost from the beginning. In 1158, before there was
any definite university organization at all, the Emperor Frederick
Barbarossa issued a decree, sometimes wrongly regarded as
marking the institution of the university of Bologna, granting
special legal standing to all students in the Lombard kingdom:
in the case of legal proceedings, the students were allowed the
option of bringing their case before their own masters, or before
the bishop of the city in which they were studying. The students
of Paris received a similar charter of privilege from Philip Augus-
tus after a quarrel between citizens and students in 1200 in which
several students were killed.

In these royal favours there was no recognition of the studia
at Bologna and Paris as such: the privileges conferred had
reference only to the masters and students as individuals. And
the reason is plainly that the studia were still in a loosely organized
condition. But with the Thirteenth Century caine great changes.
The several " universities " of scholars developed into corporate
bodies with well-defined administrative functions, and the par-
ticular studium of which they formed constituent parts became
the entity known at a later time as "universitas studii" or even
" universitas " without qualification.

* Rashdall, i, 161.